In September 2018, the Supreme Court ruled against a 40-year FEC dark money loophole, requiring “independent expenditure” groups disclose donations over a certain amount.

Where does dark money come from quizlet?

Dark money is money spent on political activity that comes from undisclosed donors. A huge source of dark money is 501(c)(4)s, which don’t have to disclose their donors but often engage in political activity, but it can also come from 501(c)(6)s and shell LLCs.

What is soft money?

Soft money (sometimes called non-federal money) means contributions made outside the limits and prohibitions of federal law. This means that it is direct corporate and union contributions and large individual and PAC contributions.

What is a Super PAC?

Super PACs are independent expenditure-only political committees that may receive unlimited contributions from individuals, corporations, labor unions and other political action committees for the purpose of financing independent expenditures and other independent political activity.

What was the first PAC?

The first PAC was the CIO-PAC, formed in July 1943 under CIO president Philip Murray and headed by Sidney Hillman. It was established after the U.S. Congress prohibited unions from giving direct contributions to political candidates.

When did dark money start?

Dark money first entered politics with Buckley v. Valeo (1976), when the United States Supreme Court laid out Eight Magic Words that define the difference between electioneering and issue advocacy.

Why is it called hard money?

It’s called a “hard money” loan because it’s harder to acquire and pay back than its soft money counterpart. You can expect a higher interest rate with a hard money loan than a conventional property loan, with many hard money loans starting at around 7-8%.

What is a 527?

A 527 organization or 527 group is a type of U.S. tax-exempt organization organized under Section 527 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. § 527). A 527 group is created primarily to influence the selection, nomination, election, appointment or defeat of candidates to federal, state or local public office.

What are the three types of PACs?

A federal PAC without a corporate/labor sponsor that makes contributions to federal candidates. A leadership PAC formed by a candidate or officeholder. A federal PAC sponsored by a partnership or an LLC (or any other type of unincorporated business entity) that makes contributions to federal candidates.

Are PACs tax exempt?

Political parties; campaign committees for candidates for federal, state or local office; and political action committees are all political organizations subject to tax under IRC section 527 and may have filing requirements with the Service.

What is a PAC vs Super PAC?

Super PACs (independent expenditure only political committees) are committees that may receive unlimited contributions from individuals, corporations, labor unions and other PACs for the purpose of financing independent expenditures and other independent political activity.

What is PAC education?

Parent Advisory Committee (PAC)

How much can I give to a PAC?

Contribution limits for 2021-2022 federal elections

PAC† (SSF and nonconnected)
Donor Individual $5,000 per year
Candidate committee $5,000 per year
PAC: multicandidate $5,000 per year

Are 527 organizations legal?

Congressional response was to enact IRC 527, effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 1974. IRC 527 provides that “political organizations” are subject to tax only to the extent provided for in that section. For all other purposes under federal law, they are treated as tax exempt organizations.

Who Must File 1120 Pol?

political organization with

Who has to file Form 1120-POL? A political organization with taxable income after taking the $100 specific deduction for the taxable year must file Form 1120-POL.

Does a PAC need an EIN?

A political organization must have its own employer identification number (EIN), even if it does not have any employees.

Does a PAC have to file a tax return?

Generally, a state PAC must file Federal Form 990 if it has gross receipts of $25,000 or more, or in some cases (that is, if it files reports with a state campaign finance agency that requires reporting certain information about PAC contributors and expenditures), if it has gross receipts of $100,000 or more.

Do political parties pay taxes?

A political organization is subject to tax on its political organization taxable income. Generally, this tax is calculated by multiplying the political organization taxable income by the highest rate of tax specified in §11(b).

What is soft money in academia?

“Soft money” is a polite euphemism for funding that comes from a source outside a university or research institute and must be pursued regularly and with vigor. The “soft” part means the money can be both uncertain and impermanent, neither of which are adjectives one would like to attach to a job or career.

What is soft money in real estate?

Soft money is defined as a long-term (5/1 ARM, 7/1 ARM, 30 Year Fixed) real estate investment loan program that closes faster (2-3 weeks) than a conventional loan. ​ This type of loan program requires more underwriting than a hard money loan, allowing it to have lower rates and greater security.

What is soft money quizlet?

Soft money definition. – money donated to political parties in a way that leaves the contribution unregulated. – there are no limits attached to the amount that can be received. Hard money definition. – political donations that are regulated by law through the Federal Election Commission.

What is soft money Apush?

Soft money supporters approved of paper money and were made up of mostly bankers and allies to bankers. Hard money supporters believed in coinage only, and rejected all banks that issued paper money (including the national bank).

What is a PAC vs Super PAC?

Super PACs (independent expenditure only political committees) are committees that may receive unlimited contributions from individuals, corporations, labor unions and other PACs for the purpose of financing independent expenditures and other independent political activity.

What are hard money donations?

Hard currency, globally traded currency that can serve as a reliable and stable store of value. Hard money (policy), currency backed by precious metal. “Hard money” donations to candidates for political office (tightly regulated, as opposed to unregulated “soft money”)

What is the McCain Feingold bill?

Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act

Long title An act to amend the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 to provide bipartisan campaign reform.
Acronyms (colloquial) BCRA
Nicknames McCain–Feingold, Shays–Meehan
Enacted by the 107th United States Congress

What is the Citizen United decision?


In Citizens United v. FEC, the Supreme Court asserted that corporations are people and removed reasonable campaign contribution limits, allowing a small group of wealthy donors and special interests to use dark money to influence elections.

What happened in Citizens United v FEC?

The Court ultimately held in this case that the anti corruption interest is not sufficient to displace the speech in question from Citizens United and that “independent expenditures, including those made by corporations, do not give rise to corruption or the appearance of corruption.”

What did the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act ban?

Passed House amended (02/14/2002) (Sec. 101) Prohibits any funds for soft money accounts from being solicited, received, directed, transferred, or spent in the name of national political parties, Federal candidates or officials, or by joint fundraising activities by two or more party committees.

Is Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act unconstitutional?

The Court found unconstitutional the BCRA’s ban on contributions from minors and the so-called “choice provision,” which provides that a party committee cannot make both coordinated and independent expenditures on behalf of a candidate after that candidate’s general election nomination.

When did campaign finance laws change?

Following reports of serious financial abuses in the 1972 presidential campaign, Congress amended the Federal Election Campaign Act in 1974 to set limits on contributions by individuals, political parties and PACs. The 1974 amendments also established an independent agency, the FEC. The FEC opened its doors in 1975.

What did the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 do?

These acts sought to regulate corporate and union spending in campaigns for federal office, and mandated public disclosure of campaign donors.

Is Hatch Act a law?

The Hatch Act of 1939, An Act to Prevent Pernicious Political Activities, is a United States federal law. Its main provision prohibits civil service employees in the executive branch of the federal government, except the president and vice president, from engaging in some forms of political activity.